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Infectious skin diseases in sindh
Infectious skin diseases in sindh

S. NO

DISEASE NAME

PICTURE


1.        


Athelete’s Foot

2.        


Acne

3.        


Allopecia

 

4.        


Breast Fungus

5.        


Chicken Pox

6.        


Dermatomycosis Furfuracea

 

7.        


Erysipelas

8.        


Erythematosus

9.        


Eczema

10.    


Folliculitis

11.    


Head Fungus

12.    

Impitigo

 

13.    


Jock’s ITCK

14.    


Leishmaniasis

15.    


Leprosy

16.    


Molluscum Contagiosun

17.    


Necrotizing Fascititis

18.    


Otits Externa

 

19.    


Pemphigoid

 

20.    


Pemphigus

21.    


Pseudomonas Dermatitis

22.    


Ringworm Scalp Fungus

23.    


Scaleded Skin Syndrome

24.    


Scabies

25.    


Shingles

26.    


Tinea Versicolor

27.    


Tuberculosis Of Skin

28.    


Vitiligo

 

29.    


Wart

Infectious skin diseases in Sindh

Infectious Skin Diseases in Sindh

 

ATHELETE’S FOOT

Definition

Athlete’s foot is a common fungal infection that develops in the moist areas between your toes and sometimes on other parts of your foot. Athlete's foot usually causes itching, stinging, cracking and burning. Athlete's foot is also known as tinea pedis.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Athlete's foot is closely related to other fungal infections, including ringworm and jock itch.

Ø  A group of mold-like fungi called dermatophytes causes these infections.

Ø  These microscopic organisms are normal inhabitants of your skin, and their growth stays in check as long as your skin is clean and dry. However, dematophytes thrive in damp, close environments.

Ø  Athlete's foot thrives in thick, tight shoes that squeeze the toes together and create warm, moist areas between them. Damp socks and shoes and warm, humid conditions also favor the organisms' growth.

Ø  Plastic shoes, in particular, provide a welcoming environment for fungal growth and infection.

Ø  Athlete's foot is contagious and can be spread by contact with an infected person or with contact with contaminated surfaces, such as towels, floors and shoes.

 

Acne

Definition

Acne is a skin condition that occurs when your hair follicles become plugged with oil and dead skin cells. Acne most commonly appears on your face, neck, chest, back and shoulders. Acne can be distressing and annoyingly persistent. Acne lesions heal slowly, and when one begins to resolve, others seem to crop up.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Acne occurs when the hair follicles become plugged with oil and dead skin cells.

Ø  Hair follicles are connected to sebaceous glands. These glands secrete an oily substance known as sebum to lubricate your hair and skin.

Ø  Sebum normally travels up along the hair shafts and then out through the openings of the hair follicles onto the surface of your skin.

Ø  When our body produces an excess amount of sebum and dead skin cells, the two can build up in the hair follicles and form together as a soft plug, creating an environment where bacteria can thrive.

Ø  This plug may cause the follicle wall to bulge and produce a whitehead. Or, the plug may be open to the surface and may darken, causing a blackhead.

Ø  Pimples are raised red spots with a white center that develop when blocked hair follicles become inflamed or infected. Blockages and inflammation that develop deep inside hair follicles produce lumps beneath the surface of your skin called cysts.

Ø  Other pores in our skin, which are the openings of the sweat glands onto our skin, aren't normally involved in acne

Ø  Factors that may worsen acne are:

ü  Hormones.

ü  Certain medications. 

ü  Diet.

 

ALLOPECIA

Definition

Alopecia means loss of hair from the head or body. Alopecia can mean baldness, a term generally reserved for pattern alopecia or androgenic alopecia. Compulsive pulling of hair can also induce hair loss. Hairstyling routines such as tight ponytails or braids may cause traction alopecia. Both hair relaxer solutions, and hot hair irons can also induce hair loss. In some cases alopecia is due to underlying medical conditions, such as iron deficiency.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Alopecia is not contagious. It occurs more frequently in people who have affected family members, suggesting heredity may be a factor.

Ø  Strong evidence of genetic association with increased risk for alopecia was found by studying families with two or more affected members.

Ø  This study identified at least four regions in the genome that are likely to contain these genes. In addition, it is slightly more likely to occur in people who have relatives with .autoimmune diseases

Ø  The condition is thought to be an autoimmune disorder in which the body attacks its own hair follicles and suppresses or stops hair growth. For example, T cell lymphocytes cluster around affected follicles, causing inflammation and subsequent hair loss.

Ø  A few cases of babies being born with congenital alopecia have been reported, but these are not cases of autoimmune disease, because an infant is born without a fully developed immune system.

Ø  Also, some evidence indicates alopecia affects the part of the hair follicle associated with hair color. Hair that has turned gray may not be affected.

 

BREAST FUNGUS

Definition

A breast fungus is a skin infection over or under the breast. This infection may be isolated to the breast, spread elsewhere on the trunk and surrounding regions or even occur in isolated spots on various sites. A breast fungus is one of the more common types of fungal infections that mainly arise in women, especially women with larger busts. However, it is often under-reported due to embarrassment about the condition or diagnosed along with a fungal infection elsewhere and there is usually no specific focus on the breast area. Fungal infections of the breast are superficial infection meaning that it only involves the outermost layers of the skin.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  A breast fungus can be caused by various fungi. Two types of fungal infections that commonly involve the chest and may therefore involve the breasts include tinea versicolor and tinea corporis.

Ø  Tinea versicolor is a yeast infection caused by a group of yeasts known as Malassezia. The two most common types of Malassezia involved in tinea versicolor are Malassezia furfur and Malassezia globosa.

Ø  Tinea corporis is a dermatophyte infection (ringworm) caused by the Trichophyton species of fungi, and most commonly by Trichophyton rubrum. It is also caused by a fungus known as Microsporum canis which is spread from cats and dogs. However, a breast fungus is most often due to an infection with the Candida species of yeasts.

Ø  Women are more at risk due to the difference in the breast size compared to males. Although men may have fungal infections of the chest that also involves the breast area, they do not develop conditions such as submammary candidiasis. This is largely due to the fact that there are no folds with chaffing as the skin of the breast rubs against the skin of the chest wall just underneath it.

Ø  However, men with gynecomastia where the breasts are abnormally large and developed may be at risk.

Ø  Factors that increase the risk of developing a breast fungus include:

ü  Wearing bras that are too tight or poorly designed.

ü  Living in a hot and humid environment.

ü  Skin irritation from the textiles used to make certain brassieres.

ü  Injury to the skin on or under the breast.

ü  Other skin diseases on or under the breast such as atopic dermatitis or psoriasis.

ü  Constantly rubbing or scratching the breasts.

ü  Irritants and abrasives like talcum powder applied on or under the breast.

ü  Excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis).

CANDIDA INFECTION

Definition

Candida is a yeast-type fungus that commonly infects the skin. It is fairly common and can involve almost any area of skin on the body. It most often it occurs in warm, moist, creased areas such as the armpits and groin.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  The body normally hosts a variety of germs, including bacteria and fungi. Some of these are useful to the body, some produce no harm or benefit, and some can cause symptoms or, at times, harm.

Ø  The fungus that most often causes candida skin infections is Candida albicans. These fungi take advantage of the warm, moist conditions.

Ø  Skin infections caused by Candida may be found in the diaper area of babies, armpit, underneath the breast, angular cheilitis (corners of the mouth), toenails or edges of nails.

Ø  A person is more likely to get a candida infection if he/she takes high doses of antibiotics or taken them for a long time. Antibiotics kill some of the healthy bacteria that help keep the fungus from over growing.

Ø  Candida infection is more common in people with:

ü  A weakened immune system due to certain medicines and diseases, such as AIDS

ü  People with a metabolic disorder, including diabetics.

ü  Obesity/overweight people.

ü  Pregnant women who take high-dose contraceptive pills.

ü  People who work in wet conditions.

 

CHICKEN POX

Definition

Chickenpox is a viral infection in which a person develops extremely itchy blisters all over the body. It used to be one of the classic childhood diseases. However, it has become much less common since the introduction of the chickenpox vaccine.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Chickenpox is an infectious disease caused by the varicella virus.

Ø  Most cases occur in children under age 15 but older children and adults can get it. It spreads very easily from one child to another.

Ø  One may get chickenpox from touching the fluids from a chickenpox blister, or if someone with the disease coughs or sneezes near you. Even those with mild illness may be contagious.

Ø  Once you catch chickenpox, the virus usually stays in your body forever. You probably will not get chickenpox again, but the virus can cause shingles in adults.

Ø  A chickenpox vaccine can help prevent most cases of chickenpox, or make it less severe if you do get it.

 
DERMATOMYCOSIS FURFURACEA

Definition

Dermatomycosis furfuracea is also known as Tinea versicolor, Pityriasis versicolor and Tinea flava. It is a condition characterized by a rash on the trunk and proximal extremities. It is a common fungal infection of the skin. The fungus interferes with the normal pigmentation of the skin, resulting in small, discolored patches. These patches may be lighter or darker in color than the surrounding skin and most commonly affect the trunk and shoulders. Tinea versicolor occurs most frequently in teens and young adults. Sun exposure may make tinea versicolor more apparent.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Dermatomycosis furfuracea/Pityriasis versicolor/tinea versicolor, is a type of skin infection caused by yeast known as Pityrosporum orbiculare.

Ø  Typically, a rash appears on the neck, upper arms and chest. At first, the rash consists of small patches which are a different color from the rest of the skin. The patches may become itchy and scaly, and may grow, merge, or spread to the thighs and abdomen.

Ø  A number of antifungal medications are available to treat the condition, and other names it is known by include dermatomycosis furfuracea and tinea flava.

Ø  Pityrosporum orbiculare is found on the skin of most people, where it does not usually cause problems.

Ø  An overgrowth of the yeast leads to Pityriasis versicolor, and this more frequently occurs in association with increased sweating and sebum production. For this reason, Pityriasis versicolor is more common in warmer climates and in the summer months.

Ø  Those who are most frequently affected by the condition include teenagers and people whose immune systems are affected by drugs or illnesses such as AIDS.

Ø  Although it is a common disease, it is not possible to catch Pityriasis versicolor from another person.

 

ERYSIPELAS

Definition

Erysipelas is a superficial infection of the skin, which typically involves the lymphatic system. Erysipelas is also known as holy fire/St. Anthony's fire, an accurate description of the intensity of this rash. Erysipelas was a feared disease in pre-antibiotic days. It occurs within the fat tissues and skin and particularly affects elderly people. But it is also develops in young people and anyone with an autoimmune disorder or weakened immune system. This is an unpleasant and distressing form of cellulitis.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Erysipelas is most often caused by specific Streptococcus bacteria known as Group-A Streptococcus. In a few cases, it can be caused by other types of Streptococcus or Staphylococcus bacteria.

Ø  Some cases of erysipelas have an inciting wound such as trauma, an abrasion, or some other break in the skin that precedes the fiery infection. However, in most cases, no break in the skin can be found.

Ø  Erysipelas was previously found mainly on the face. However, now it is seen most commonly on the lower extremities. Erysipelas tends to occur in areas where the lymphatic system is obstructed.

Ø  A cluster of symptoms typically precede the appearance of the rash by 4 to 48 hours.

Ø  These symptoms include fever, chills, fatigue, anorexia, and vomiting. The rash then quickly appears as a bright red, hot, swollen, shiny patch that has clearly defined borders. The consistency of the rash is similar to an orange peel.

Ø  This disease is most common among the elderly, infants, and children. People with immune deficiencydiabetesalcoholismskin ulcerationfungal infections and impaired lymphatic drainage, after pelvic surgery, bypass grafting are also at increased risk.

ERYTHEMATOSUS

Definition

Erythematosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs when body's immune system attacks tissues and organs. Inflammation caused by erythematosus can affect many different body systems including joints, skin, kidneys, blood cells, brain, heart and lungs. Erythematosus can be difficult to diagnose because its signs and symptoms often mimic those of other ailments. The most distinctive sign of erythematosus is a facial rash that resembles the wings of a butterfly unfolding across both cheeks occurs in many but not all cases of erythematosus Some people are born with a tendency toward developing erythematosus, which may be triggered by infections, certain drugs or even sunlight. While there's no cure for erythematosus, treatments can help control symptoms.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Erythematosus occurs when immune system attacks healthy tissue of body. It's likely that erythematosus results from a combination of your genetics and your environment.

Ø  It appears that people with an inherited predisposition for erythematosus may develop the disease when they come into contact with something in the environment that can trigger erythematosus.

Ø  The cause for erythematosus in most cases, however, is unknown. Some potential triggers include:

Ø  Exposure to the sun may bring on erythematosus skin lesions or trigger an internal response in susceptible people.

Ø  Erythematosus can be triggered by certain types of anti-seizure medications, blood pressure medications and antibiotics.

Ø  People who have drug-induced erythematosus usually see their symptoms go away when they stop taking the medication.

 

ECZEMA

Definition

This is a very common skin condition in which the sufferer develops dry, red, flaky skin which is also itchy and prone to blisters. These blisters contain fluid which weep and then form crusty deposits which is a sign of infection. The term eczema refers to a number of different skin conditions in which the skin is red and irritated and occasionally results in small, fluid-filled bumps that become moist and ooze. The most common cause of eczema is atopic dermatitis, sometimes called infantile eczema although it occurs in infants and older children.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Eczema may affect any area of your skin, but it typically appears on your arms and behind your knees. It tends to flare periodically and then subside. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis (eczema) is unknown, but it's likely due to a combination of dry, irritable skin with a malfunction in the body's immune system.

Ø  Stress and other emotional disorders can worsen atopic dermatitis, but they don't cause it. Most experts believe atopic dermatitis has a genetic basis. It has been thought to be connected to asthma and hay fever, but that theory is being questioned.

Ø  Not all people with atopic dermatitis have asthma or hay fever, and not all people with asthma or hay fever develop atopic dermatitis, but these diseases do seem to be present together in families of those affected

Ø  Factors that may increase your risk of dermatitis (eczema) include:

Neurodermatitis:  Prolonged itching and scratching may increase the intensity of the itch, possibly leading to neurodermatitis (lichen simplex chronicus). Neurodermatitis is a condition in which an area of skin that's frequently scratched becomes thick and leathery. The patches can be raw, red or darker than the rest of your skin. Persistent scratching can also lead to permanent scars or changes in skin color.

Skin infections:  Sometimes, scratching can break the skin and cause open sores and fissures that can become infected, a process called impetiginization. A milder form of infection is impetigo, usually due to staphylococcal infection. Having atopic dermatitis predisposes you to this infection.

Eye complications: Severe atopic dermatitis can also cause eye complications, which may lead to permanent eye damage. When these complications occur, itching in and around the eyelids becomes severe. Signs and symptoms of eye complications also include eye watering and inflammation of the eyelid and the lining of the eyelid (conjunctivitis).

Folliculitus:

Definition

This is an inflammation of the hair follicles which results in an itchy, painful skin rash on several parts of the body. These include the scalp, face and legs. A hair follicle is a bulb shaped sac within the skin which causes hair to grow. This hair is nourished by the sebaceous glands. The sebaceous glands release an oily fluid called sebum which lubricates the skin, nails and hair. But the sebaceous gland can become inflamed, leading to a condition called folliculitis. Folliculitis affects both men and women of any age.

The infection usually appears as small, white-headed pimples around one or more hair follicles — the tiny pockets from which each hair grows. Most cases of folliculitis are superficial, and they may itch, but on occasion they are painful too

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Folliculitis is caused by an infection of the hair follicles by bacteria, viruses or fungi. The most common cause of folliculitis is Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

Ø  Folliculitis starts when hair follicles are damaged by rubbing from clothing, blockage of the follicle, or shaving, inflammatory skin conditions, including dermatitis and acne, coverings on your skin, such as plastic dressings or adhesive.

Ø  Most of the time, the damaged follicles become infected with Staphylococcus bacteria.

Ø  Anyone can develop folliculitis, but certain factors make you more susceptible to the condition. These include:

ü  Medical conditions that reduce your resistance to infection, such as diabetes, chronic leukemia, organ transplantation and HIV/AIDS.

ü  A pre-existing skin condition, such as acne or dermatitis.

ü  Trauma to your skin from injury or surgery.

ü  Long-term antibiotic therapy for acne.

ü  Topical corticosteroid therapy.

ü  Obesity — folliculitis is more common in people who are overweight.

ü  Long-term exposure to clothing items that can trap heat, such as wearing high boots or waders.

ü  Exposure to hot water, such as a hot tub or a heated swimming pool.

 

HEAD FUNGUS

Definition

Head fungus/hair ringworm (Tinea capitis) is a fungal infection of the scalp and hair shafts. The signs and symptoms of ringworm of the scalp may vary, but it usually appears as itchy, scaly, bald patches on the head. Head fungus is a highly contagious infection, is most common in toddlers and school-age children.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Ringworm of the scalp is caused by one of several varieties of mold-like fungi called dermatophytes. The fungi attack the outer layer of skin on the scalp and the hair shaft.

Ø  Ringworm isn't caused by a worm. The common name for the disorder refers to the ring-like or circular appearance of the infection on the skin.

Ø  Risk factors of ringworm of the scalp include:

Exposure to other children: Though adults can get ringworm of the scalp, it occurs most often in toddlers and school-age children. Outbreaks of ringworm are common in schools and child care centers where the infection easily spreads through close physical contact or by touching common items, such as door handles.

Exposure to pets:  children with pets are at increased risk of ringworm. A pet, such as a cat or dog, can have the infection without showing any signs. Children can get the infection by touching or petting the animal.

Ø  Others factor that increase the risk of ringworm of the scalp includes:

ü  Poor hygiene

ü  Overcrowded living condition

IMPITIGO

Definition

Impetigo is a highly contagious skin condition caused by bacteria which results in an itchy skin condition that is highly infectious. This is not a serious condition but it is contagious and care must be taken to avoid spreading it to other people particularly babies. Impetigo usually clears up by itself but cases which don’t are treated with antibiotics. This condition affects children more than adults: this is due to their close proximity with others in nurseries and schools which enables infections such as this to spread. But adults can also contract this condition if they live in a close knit environment

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Most impetigo outbreaks are caused by two types of bacteria cause impetigo Staphylococcus aureus, which is most common, and Streptococcus pyogenes.

Ø  Both types of bacteria can live harmlessly on your skin until they enter through a cut or other wound and cause an infection.Although

Ø  Anyone can develop impetigo; children ages 2 to 6 years and infants are most often infected.

Ø  Children are especially susceptible to infections. They are infected through a cut, scrape or insect bite, but they can also develop impetigo without having any notable damage to the skin. In adults, impetigo is usually the result of injury to the skin, often by another dermatological condition such as dermatitis.

JOCK’S ITCK

Definition

Jock itch (tinea cruris) is a fungal infection that affects the skin of your genitals, inner thighs and buttocks. Jock itch causes an itchy, red, often ring-shaped rash in these warm, moist areas of your body.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Jock itch is caused by fungi called dermatophytes. These microscopic organisms are normal inhabitants of your skin, and their growth stays in check as long as your skin is clean and dry.

Ø  Some areas of the body where skin is more likely to be moist and warm, such as the groin, the fungi grow and thrive, resulting in a fungal infection.

Ø  Jock itch can spread from person to person by shared use of contaminated towels or clothing or through direct contact during sexual intercourse with someone who has the infection.

Ø  The organisms that cause jock itch thrive in damp, close environments. Warm, humid settings that promote heavy sweating, thus washing away fungus-killing oils, making the skin more permeable and more prone to infection

 

LEISHMANIASIS

Definition

leishmaniasis cause skin sore it is also known as Aleppo boil, Baghdad boil, Bay sore, Chiclero ulcer, Delhi boil, Kandahar sore, Lahore sore, Leishmaniasis tropica, Oriental sore is the most common form of leishmaniasis. People effected from leishmaniasis belong to tropical and sub tropical areas.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease spread by the bite of infected sand flies.  It is caused by infection with Leishmania parasites, which are spread by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies.

Ø  Sand flies are so small (approximately 2–3 mm, less than one-eighth of an inch) that they can pass through the holes in ordinary bed nets.

Ø  The risk is highest from dusk to dawn because sand flies typically feed (bite) at night and during twilight hours.

Ø  Although sand flies are less active during the hottest time of the day, they may bite if they are disturbed (for example, if hikers brush up against tree trunks or other sites where sand flies are resting).

Ø  Vector activity can easily be overlooked, sand flies do not make noise, they are small (approximately one-third the size of mosquitoes), and their bites might not be noticed.

 

 

LEPROSY

Definition

Leprosy is a disease that has been known since biblical times. It causes skin sores, nerve damage, and muscle weakness that gets worse over time. Leprosy has two common forms: tuberculoid and lepromatous. Both forms produce sores on the skin. However, the lepromatous form is most severe. It causes large lumps and bumps.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Leprosy is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae.

Ø  It is not very contagious and it has a long incubation period (time before symptoms appear), which makes it hard to know where or when someone caught the disease.

Ø  Children are more likely than adults to get the disease.

Ø  Most cases of leprosy are from long-term contact with someone who has the disease.

Ø  Leprosy might be passed from person to person by breathing in droplets that get into the air when infected people cough or sneeze.

Ø  Most people who come in contact with the Mycobacterium leprae do not develop leprosy.

Ø  However, people whose immune systems are weakened from chronic disease (such as diabetes, HIV, AIDS or heart disease) may be more likely to develop leprosy because their immune systems are not strong enough to fight the bacteria.

 

 

MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUN

Definition

Molluscum contagiosum is a relatively common viral infection of the skin that results in round, firm, painless bumps ranging in size from a pinhead to a pencil eraser. If the bumps are scratched or injured, the infection can spread to surrounding skin.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Molluscum contagiosum is a skin infection caused by a poxvirus.

Ø  This virus is spread from person to person either by touching the affected skin area or by sexual contact when the genital area is affected.

Ø  The virus can also temporarily survive on surfaces like towels, cloths, toys, door handles and spread to individuals that come into contact with these surfaces.

Ø  Infection can be spread by touching or scratching other areas of body.

Ø  More widespread Molluscum contagiosum infections may occur in people with weakened immune systems and in children who have atopic dermatitis.

NECROTIZING FASCITITIS

Definition

Necrotizing fascititis or macrotizing soft tissue infection is a rare but very severe type of bacterial infection. It can destroy the muscles, skin, and underlying tissue. The word "necrotizing" refers to something that causes body tissue to die.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Many different types of bacteria can cause this infection. A very severe and usually deadly form of necrotizing soft tissue infection is due to Streptococcus pyogenes, which is sometimes called "flesh-eating bacteria."

Ø  Necrotizing soft tissue infection develops when the bacteria enters the body, usually through a minor cut or scrape.

Ø  The bacterium begins to grow and release harmful substances (toxins) that kill tissue and affect blood flow to the area. As the tissue dies, the bacterium enters the blood and rapidly spreads throughout the body.

Ø  Necrotizing fasciitis can affect any area of the body, but in adults it most commonly occurs on the extremities. Conversely, in very young children the most commonly affected area is the trunk. 

Ø  There is a higher mortality rate when the head, neck, chest, or abdomen is involved. These areas are more difficult to treat, and critical structures reside within them.

Ø  Typically, it occurs as a result of trauma, extension of a urinary tract infection, or an extension of an infection in the perianal or retroperitoneal areas.

 

OTITS EXTERNA

Definition

Otitis externa is also called as swimmer's ear or repeated ear infections. It is an infection of the lining the ear canal, which carries sound from outside the ear to the middle ear. It is one of the causes of hearing impairment.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Water that does not drain from the ear canal washes away the wax that protects the ear canal, leading to conditions for bacterial or fungal infections to occur.

Ø  Swimmers ear is usually found in people who swim frequently, particularly in water that is not clean.

Ø  People who live in very damp, tropical places are especially at risk for this ear condition.

Ø  Otitis externa can also happen due to injury of the ear canal lining, such as scratching it with a fingernail, hair clip, or paper clip This condition is also seen in young children who spend a good deal of time swimming, especially during the hot summer months.

Ø  There are commercially available earplugs that will prevent water from getting into the ears and causing infection. Remember, repeated ear infections can cause hearing impairment that may not be easily recognizable for months.

PSORIASIS

Definition

Psoriasis is a well known skin condition which presents as a red, itchy, crusty rash with silver colored scales which flakes easily especially when scratched. It affects people of any age although it is more common in people aged between 11 and their mid forties. Psoriasis varies in severity from one person to another. Some people have a mild form of this disease but others are unfortunate enough to suffer from a severe form which impacts on their day to day living.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Psoriasis is a fault of immune system. Immune system protects against infection and does this by releasing T-cells to deal with the threat of a germ, virus or bacteria.

Ø  But in this case, the T-cells turn on healthy skin cells instead. This triggers the release of more T-cells and healthy skin cells.

Ø  This process gradually speeds up to the point where the entire skin cell life cycle occurs within 5 days rather than the normal 28 days.

Ø  Genetics is another factor. Psoriasis tends to run in families so if a close family member has this condition then you will develop it as well.

Ø  People with psoriasis are at risk for the following conditions:

Psoriatic Arthritis: Up to 30% of people with psoriasis go on to develop psoriatic arthritis, which causes pain, stiffness and swelling in and around the joints.

Depression: As many as 25% of people with psoriasis may suffer from depression.

Cardiovascular Disease: People with severe psoriasis may be at greater risk for heart disease.

PEMPHIGOID

Definition

Pemphigoid is an autoimmune disorder in which your antibodies attack healthy cells in your skin and mouth, causing blisters and sores which leads to deep blisters that do not break easily. Pemphigoid does not spread from person to person. It does not appear to be inherited. But some people's genes put them more at risk for Pemphigoid.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  The cause of pemphigoid is not well understood. The blisters occur because of a malfunction in the immune system.

Ø  Pemphigoid most commonly occurs in people older than age 60, and the risk increases with age.

PEMPHIGUS

Definition

Pemphigus is a group of rare skin disorders that cause blisters of your skin or mucous membranes, such as in your mouth or on your genitals.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Pemphigus is an autoimmune disorder, and in most cases, it's unknown what triggers the disease.

Ø  Normally, your immune system attacks foreign invaders, such as harmful viruses and bacteria. But in pemphigus, your immune system mistakenly produces antibodies that attack healthy cells in your skin and mucous membranes.

Ø  Sometimes, pemphigus develops as a side effect of certain medications, such as certain blood pressure drugs or chelating agents. This type of pemphigus usually disappears when the medicine is stopped.

Ø  Pemphigus isn't contagious, and there's no way to predict who'll get it. However, risk increases in middle- or old age.

 

 

 

 

PSEUDOMONAS DERMITITIS

Definition

Pseudomonas dermatitis or Hot Tub Rash is an infection of the skin. The skin may become itchy and progress to a bumpy red rash that may become tender. There may also be pus-filled blisters that are usually found surrounding hair follicles. Because wet cloths or swimsuit can keep contaminated water in longer contact with the skin, the rash may be worse under a person’s wet cloths.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Pseudomonas dermatitis or Hot Tub Rash infections are often caused by the germ Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Ø  This germ is common in the environment (water, soil).

Ø  Pseudomonas dermatitis is spread by direct skin contact with contaminated water.

Ø  Pseudomonas dermatitis or Hot tub rash can occur in people of any age, of any race, and of either sex.

Ø  Individuals with Pseudomonas dermatitis avoid bathing in contaminated pool or sponge.

RINGWORM

Definition

Ringworm of the body is one of several forms of ringworm, a fungal infection that develops on the top layer of your skin. It's characterized by an itchy, red circular rash with healthy-looking skin in the middle. Ringworm gets its name from the characteristic ring that can appear, but it has nothing to do with an actual worm under skin. Also called tinea corporis, ringworm of the body is closely related to other fungal infections with similar names, including athlete's foot (tinea pedis), jock itch (tinea cruris) and ringworm of the scalp (tinea capitis).

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Ringworm is a fungal infection, caused by microorganisms that become parasites on the body.

Ø  These mold-like fungi called dermatophytes live on the cells in the outer layer of the skin.

Ø  A person is at higher risk of ringworm of the body if he/she:

ü  Live in damp, humid or crowded conditions

ü  Have close contact with an infected person or animal

ü  Share clothing, bedding or towels with someone who has a fungal infection

ü  Sweat excessively

ü  Participate in contact sports, such as wrestling, football or rugby

ü  Wear tight or restricted clothing

ü  Have a weakened immune system

 

SCALP FUNGUS

Definition

Ringworm of the scalp or fungal scalp (tinea capitis) is a fungal infection of the scalp and hair shafts. It usually appears as itchy, scaly, bald patches on the head. Serious cases cause pus filled sores to develop, accompanied by a fever and swollen glands.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Ringworm of the scalp is caused by one of several varieties of mold-like fungi called dermatophytes.

Ø  The fungi attack the outer layer of skin on the scalp and the hair shaft.

Ø  Infection of scalp fungus can be spread by exposure of children with other children.

Ø  Outbreaks of ringworm are common in schools and child care centers where the infection easily spreads through close physical contact or by touching common items, such as door handles etc.

 

SCALEDED SKIN SYNDROME

Definition

Scalded skin syndrome is a skin infection. This is characterized by a red blistering skin that looks like a burn or scald damaged and sheds.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Scalded skin syndrome is caused by infection with certain strains of Staphylococcus bacteria.

Ø  The bacteria produce a exotoxins (epidermolytic toxins A and B) that causes the skin damage.

Ø  The damage creates blisters as if the skin were scalded.

Ø  Scalded skin syndrome is found most commonly in infants and children under the age of 5-8.

SCABIES

Definition

Scabies is an infectious skin condition that produce itchy skin rash. It is contagious skin infection can easily spread to other people, usually via direct contact and it is common way of contracting this disease. It is also spread by sharing bedding, towels and clothing with an infected person.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  In humans scabies is caused by eight-legged mite that is microscopic.

Ø  The female mite burrows just beneath the skin and produces a tunnel in which it deposits eggs.

Ø  The eggs hatch in three to four days, and the mite larvae work their way to the surface of the skin, where they mature and can spread to other areas of the skin.

Ø  The itching of scabies results from body's allergic reaction to the mites, their eggs and their waste.

SHINGLES

Definition

Shingles is viral infections that produce a painful rash. Although shingles can occur anywhere on your body, it most often appears as a single stripe of blisters that wraps around either the left or the right side of the trunk.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Shingles is caused by the varicella-zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox Varicella zoster is part of a group of viruses called herpes viruses, which includes the viruses that cause cold sores and genital herpes.

Ø  Because of this, shingles is also known as herpes zoster. But the virus that causes chickenpox and shingles is not the same virus responsible for cold sores or genital herpes.

Ø  Factors that may increase your risk of developing shingles include:

 

ü  Shingles is most common in people older than 50. The risk increases with age.

ü  Diseases that weaken immune system, such as HIV/AIDS and cancer, can increase risk of shingles.

ü  Undergoing radiation or chemotherapy can lower resistance to diseases and may trigger shingles.

ü  Drugs designed to prevent rejection of transplanted organs can increase risk of shingles.

 

TINEA VERSICOLOR

Definition

Tinea versicolor also called pityriasis versicolor. It is a common fungal infection of the skin. The fungus interferes with the normal pigmentation of the skin, resulting in small, discolored patches. These patches may be lighter or darker in color than the surrounding skin and most commonly affect the trunk and shoulders. Tinea versicolor occurs most frequently in teens and young adults. Sun exposure may make tinea versicolor more apparent.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  The fungus that causes tinea versicolor can be found on healthy skin.

Ø  It only starts causing problems when the fungus overgrows.

Ø  A number of factors may improve this growth, hot, humid weather, excessive sweating, oily skin, hormonal changes, weaken immune system.

 

TUBERCULOSIS OF SKIN

Definition

Tuberculosis of skin/cutaneous tuberculosis also called as lupus vulgaris. It occurs rarely, despite a high and increasing prevalence of tuberculosis. Diagnosis of these lesions can be difficult, as they resemble many other dermatological conditions. In skin tuberculosis painful skin lesions with nodule appears, most often on the face around nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks, ears and neck. The lesions may develop into skin ulcers.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Cutaneous tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the same bacteria that cause pulmonary TB.

Ø  Several different types of cutaneous TB exist. Mycobacteriums enter through broken skin.

Ø  The immune response of the patient and the virulence of the mycobacterium determine the type and severity of cutaneous TB.

Ø  The risk of cutaneous tuberculosis infection increases in contact with infectious person.

Ø  It is associated with age, sex, intensity of exposure to the infected person, and severity of disease in the person.

Ø  But it is possible that genetic factors contribute to the susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

 

VITILIGO

Definition

Vitiligo is a chronic skin condition which results in the development of large pale patches on the skin. These patches are white or pale coloured due to the absence of melanin. Melanin is a pigment which determines the skin colour and also helps to protect it against the sun.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Vitiligo occurs when melanin-forming cells (melanocytes) fail to produce melanin.

Ø  It is a dark pigment in the epidermis that gives skin its normal color, the involved patch of skin then becomes white.

Ø  It may be due to an immune system disorder.

Ø   Heredity may be a factor because there's an increased incidence of vitiligo in some families such as sunburn or emotional distress that worsen the condition.

WART

Definition

 Warts are small, grainy skin growths that occur most often on fingers or hands. These are rough to touch and often appear as tiny black dots. Warts are small, clotted blood vessels. Their appearance depends upon what area of the body they develop on.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Warts are caused by a virus and are transmitted by touch.

Ø  Children and young adults are more likely to develop warts.

Ø  People who have weakened immune systems are more susceptible to warts.

Ø  Warts usually disappear on their own, but many people choose to remove them because they find them bothersome or embarrassing.

 

 

Candida Albicans or Candidiasis:      

Definition:

Candidiasis is a primary or secondary mycotic infection caused by members of the genus Candida. The clinical manifestations may be acute, subacute or chronic to episodic. Candidiasis or thrush is a fungal infection (mycosis) of any species from the genus Candida (one genus of yeasts). Candida albicans is the most common agent of Candidiasis in humans.[1][2] Also commonly referred to as a yeast infection, candidiasis is also technically known as candidosis, moniliasis, and oidiomycosis.

 

Causative Agent & Risk Factors:

 

1-Involvement may be localized to the mouth, throat, skin, scalp, vagina, fingers, nails, bronchi, lungs, or the gastrointestinal tract, or become systemic as in septicemia, endocarditis and meningitis.

2-In healthy individuals, Candida infections are usually due to impaired epithelial barrier functions and occur in all age groups, but are most common in the newborn and the elderly.

3- They usually remain superficial and respond readily to treatment. Systemic candidiasis is usually seen in patients with cell-mediated immune deficiency, and those receiving aggressive cancer treatment, immunosuppression, or transplantation therapy.

4-Esophageal candidiasis is the most common esophageal infection in persons with AIDS.

 

 

 

 

 

Pyoderma:

 Definition:                                                                 

Pyoderma means any skin disease that is . These include superficial bacterial infections such as impetigo, impetigo contagiosa, ecthyma, folliculitis, Bockhart's impetigo, furuncle, carbuncle, tropical ulcer, etc.[1][2] Autoimmune conditions include pyoderma gangrenosum.[citation needed] Pyoderma affects more than 111 million children worldwide, making it one of the three most common skin disorders in children along with scabies and tinea.

Causative Agent & Risk Factors:

1-Most common organism usually isolated in pyoderma is Staphyloccus aureus, which may be either methicilllin-sensitive (MSSA) or methicilllin-resistant (MRSA). MRSA is an important health care associated pathogen.

2-Various factors like poverty, malnutrition, overcrowding, and poor hygiene have been stated to be responsible for its higher incidence in the lower socio-economic class.

3-It tends to be associated with inflammatory conditions, including ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and hepatitis.

4-Infections like  bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal, viral, parasitic can leads to pyoderma.

Measles:

Definition:

Measles, also known as morbilli, English measles, or rubeola (and not to be confused with rubella or roseola) is an infection of the respiratory system caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. Measles is a highly contagious viral disease, which affects mostly children.

Causative Agent & Risk Factors:

These factors increase your chance of developing measles:

·         Unvaccinated or inadequately vaccinated

·         Living in crowded and/or unsanitary conditions

·         Traveling to less developed countries where measles is common

·         Season: winter and spring

·         Immunosuppressed state (eg, untreated HIV and AIDS ), even if vaccinated.

 

Prickly Heat:                                                   

Definition:

It is a skin disease marked by small and itchy rashes. Miliaria is a common ailment in hot and humid conditions, such as in the tropics and during the summer season. Heat rash occurs when the skin's sweat glands are blocked and the sweat produced cannot get to the surface of the skin to evaporate. This causes inflammation that results in a rash. Although it affects people of all ages, it is especially common in children and infants due to their underdeveloped sweat glands. Causative Agent & Risk Factors:

The causative agent of prickly heat is Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis.Following are the risk factors of heat rashes:

1-Heat rashes are more common in places with hot, humid, climates because people sweat more.

2-Avoid exercising in hot, humid weather

3-Wear loose clothing made of breathable fabrics like cotton

4-Use air conditioning

5-Keep the skin clean with frequent baths or showers to prevent sweat glands from becoming clogged

6-Reduce the amount of overlapping skin-on-skin

Brown Spots on Face (Liver Spot):

Definition:

Age spots, also called liver spots and solar lentigines — are flat gray, brown or black spots. They vary in size and usually appear on the face, hands, shoulders and arms — areas most exposed to the sun. Brown spots typically develop in people with a fair complexion.

Causative Agent & Risk Factors:

Age spots are caused primarily by years of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun. The use of commercial tanning lamps and tanning beds can also contribute to the development of age spots. Although anyone can develop age spots, you may be more likely to develop the condition if you:

·         Have light-colored or fair skin

·         Have a history of frequent or intense sun exposure or sunburn.

Hair Follicles:

Definition:

Folliculitis occurs when hair follicles become infected, often with Staphylococcus aureus or other bacteria. Certain variations of folliculitis are also known as hot tub folliculitis and barber's itch. Severe infections can cause permanent hair loss and scarring, and even mild folliculitis can be uncomfortable and embarrassing.

The infection usually appears as small, white-headed pimples around one or more hair follicles — the tiny pockets from which each hair grows.

Causative Agent & Risk Factors:

 

Folliculitis is caused by an infection of the hair follicles by bacteria, viruses or fungi. The most common cause of folliculitis is Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The most common causes of follicle damage include:

·         Friction from shaving or tight clothing

·         Excessive perspiration

·         Inflammatory skin conditions, including dermatitis and acne

·         Injuries to your skin, such as abrasions or surgical wounds

·         Coverings on your skin, such as plastic dressings or adhesive tape

Anyone can develop folliculitis, but certain factors make you more susceptible to the condition. These include:

·         Medical conditions that reduce your resistance to infection, such as diabetes, chronic leukemia, organ transplantation and HIV/AIDS

·         A pre-existing skin condition, such as acne or dermatitis

·         Trauma to your skin from injury or surgery

·         Long-term antibiotic therapy for acne

·         Topical corticosteroid therapy

·         Obesity — folliculitis is more common in people who are overweight

·         Long-term exposure to clothing items that can trap heat, such as wearing high boots or waders

·         Exposure to hot water, such as a hot tub or a heated swimming pool.

Abscess:

Definition:

An abscess is a tender, soft, swelling generally surrounded by an area of skin coloured from pink to deep red. The middle of an abscess is full of pus and debris. An abscess (Latinabscessus) is a collection of pus (neutrophils) that has accumulated within a tissue because of an inflammatory process in response to either an infectious process.

Painful and warm to touch, abscesses can appear anywhere on your body. The most common sites are in your armpits (axillae), areas around your anus and vagina (Bartholin's abscess), the base of your spine (pilonidal abscess), around atooth (dental abscess), and in your groin. Inflammation around a hair follicle can also lead to the formation of an abscess, which is called a boil (furuncle).

Causative Agent & Risk Factors:

 Staphylococcus aureus bacteria is a common cause of Abscess. Abscesses are caused by obstruction of oil-producing (sebaceous) glands or sweat glands, inflammation of hair follicles, or from minor breaks and puncture

5. Infectious skin diseases in sindh

Infectious Skin Diseases in Sindh

 

ATHELETE’S FOOT

Definition

Athlete’s foot is a common fungal infection that develops in the moist areas between your toes and sometimes on other parts of your foot. Athlete's foot usually causes itching, stinging, cracking and burning. Athlete's foot is also known as tinea pedis.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Athlete's foot is closely related to other fungal infections, including ringworm and jock itch.

Ø  A group of mold-like fungi called dermatophytes causes these infections.

Ø  These microscopic organisms are normal inhabitants of your skin, and their growth stays in check as long as your skin is clean and dry. However, dematophytes thrive in damp, close environments.

Ø  Athlete's foot thrives in thick, tight shoes that squeeze the toes together and create warm, moist areas between them. Damp socks and shoes and warm, humid conditions also favor the organisms' growth.

Ø  Plastic shoes, in particular, provide a welcoming environment for fungal growth and infection.

Ø  Athlete's foot is contagious and can be spread by contact with an infected person or with contact with contaminated surfaces, such as towels, floors and shoes.

 

Acne

Definition

Acne is a skin condition that occurs when your hair follicles become plugged with oil and dead skin cells. Acne most commonly appears on your face, neck, chest, back and shoulders. Acne can be distressing and annoyingly persistent. Acne lesions heal slowly, and when one begins to resolve, others seem to crop up.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Acne occurs when the hair follicles become plugged with oil and dead skin cells.

Ø  Hair follicles are connected to sebaceous glands. These glands secrete an oily substance known as sebum to lubricate your hair and skin.

Ø  Sebum normally travels up along the hair shafts and then out through the openings of the hair follicles onto the surface of your skin.

Ø  When our body produces an excess amount of sebum and dead skin cells, the two can build up in the hair follicles and form together as a soft plug, creating an environment where bacteria can thrive.

Ø  This plug may cause the follicle wall to bulge and produce a whitehead. Or, the plug may be open to the surface and may darken, causing a blackhead.

Ø  Pimples are raised red spots with a white center that develop when blocked hair follicles become inflamed or infected. Blockages and inflammation that develop deep inside hair follicles produce lumps beneath the surface of your skin called cysts.

Ø  Other pores in our skin, which are the openings of the sweat glands onto our skin, aren't normally involved in acne

Ø  Factors that may worsen acne are:

ü  Hormones.

ü  Certain medications. 

ü  Diet.

 

ALLOPECIA

Definition

Alopecia means loss of hair from the head or body. Alopecia can mean baldness, a term generally reserved for pattern alopecia or androgenic alopecia. Compulsive pulling of hair can also induce hair loss. Hairstyling routines such as tight ponytails or braids may cause traction alopecia. Both hair relaxer solutions, and hot hair irons can also induce hair loss. In some cases alopecia is due to underlying medical conditions, such as iron deficiency.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Alopecia is not contagious. It occurs more frequently in people who have affected family members, suggesting heredity may be a factor.

Ø  Strong evidence of genetic association with increased risk for alopecia was found by studying families with two or more affected members.

Ø  This study identified at least four regions in the genome that are likely to contain these genes. In addition, it is slightly more likely to occur in people who have relatives with .autoimmune diseases

Ø  The condition is thought to be an autoimmune disorder in which the body attacks its own hair follicles and suppresses or stops hair growth. For example, T cell lymphocytes cluster around affected follicles, causing inflammation and subsequent hair loss.

Ø  A few cases of babies being born with congenital alopecia have been reported, but these are not cases of autoimmune disease, because an infant is born without a fully developed immune system.

Ø  Also, some evidence indicates alopecia affects the part of the hair follicle associated with hair color. Hair that has turned gray may not be affected.

 

BREAST FUNGUS

Definition

A breast fungus is a skin infection over or under the breast. This infection may be isolated to the breast, spread elsewhere on the trunk and surrounding regions or even occur in isolated spots on various sites. A breast fungus is one of the more common types of fungal infections that mainly arise in women, especially women with larger busts. However, it is often under-reported due to embarrassment about the condition or diagnosed along with a fungal infection elsewhere and there is usually no specific focus on the breast area. Fungal infections of the breast are superficial infection meaning that it only involves the outermost layers of the skin.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  A breast fungus can be caused by various fungi. Two types of fungal infections that commonly involve the chest and may therefore involve the breasts include tinea versicolor and tinea corporis.

Ø  Tinea versicolor is a yeast infection caused by a group of yeasts known as Malassezia. The two most common types of Malassezia involved in tinea versicolor are Malassezia furfur and Malassezia globosa.

Ø  Tinea corporis is a dermatophyte infection (ringworm) caused by the Trichophyton species of fungi, and most commonly by Trichophyton rubrum. It is also caused by a fungus known as Microsporum canis which is spread from cats and dogs. However, a breast fungus is most often due to an infection with the Candida species of yeasts.

Ø  Women are more at risk due to the difference in the breast size compared to males. Although men may have fungal infections of the chest that also involves the breast area, they do not develop conditions such as submammary candidiasis. This is largely due to the fact that there are no folds with chaffing as the skin of the breast rubs against the skin of the chest wall just underneath it.

Ø  However, men with gynecomastia where the breasts are abnormally large and developed may be at risk.

Ø  Factors that increase the risk of developing a breast fungus include:

ü  Wearing bras that are too tight or poorly designed.

ü  Living in a hot and humid environment.

ü  Skin irritation from the textiles used to make certain brassieres.

ü  Injury to the skin on or under the breast.

ü  Other skin diseases on or under the breast such as atopic dermatitis or psoriasis.

ü  Constantly rubbing or scratching the breasts.

ü  Irritants and abrasives like talcum powder applied on or under the breast.

ü  Excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis).

CANDIDA INFECTION

Definition

Candida is a yeast-type fungus that commonly infects the skin. It is fairly common and can involve almost any area of skin on the body. It most often it occurs in warm, moist, creased areas such as the armpits and groin.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  The body normally hosts a variety of germs, including bacteria and fungi. Some of these are useful to the body, some produce no harm or benefit, and some can cause symptoms or, at times, harm.

Ø  The fungus that most often causes candida skin infections is Candida albicans. These fungi take advantage of the warm, moist conditions.

Ø  Skin infections caused by Candida may be found in the diaper area of babies, armpit, underneath the breast, angular cheilitis (corners of the mouth), toenails or edges of nails.

Ø  A person is more likely to get a candida infection if he/she takes high doses of antibiotics or taken them for a long time. Antibiotics kill some of the healthy bacteria that help keep the fungus from over growing.

Ø  Candida infection is more common in people with:

ü  A weakened immune system due to certain medicines and diseases, such as AIDS

ü  People with a metabolic disorder, including diabetics.

ü  Obesity/overweight people.

ü  Pregnant women who take high-dose contraceptive pills.

ü  People who work in wet conditions.

 

CHICKEN POX

Definition

Chickenpox is a viral infection in which a person develops extremely itchy blisters all over the body. It used to be one of the classic childhood diseases. However, it has become much less common since the introduction of the chickenpox vaccine.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Chickenpox is an infectious disease caused by the varicella virus.

Ø  Most cases occur in children under age 15 but older children and adults can get it. It spreads very easily from one child to another.

Ø  One may get chickenpox from touching the fluids from a chickenpox blister, or if someone with the disease coughs or sneezes near you. Even those with mild illness may be contagious.

Ø  Once you catch chickenpox, the virus usually stays in your body forever. You probably will not get chickenpox again, but the virus can cause shingles in adults.

Ø  A chickenpox vaccine can help prevent most cases of chickenpox, or make it less severe if you do get it.

 
DERMATOMYCOSIS FURFURACEA

Definition

Dermatomycosis furfuracea is also known as Tinea versicolor, Pityriasis versicolor and Tinea flava. It is a condition characterized by a rash on the trunk and proximal extremities. It is a common fungal infection of the skin. The fungus interferes with the normal pigmentation of the skin, resulting in small, discolored patches. These patches may be lighter or darker in color than the surrounding skin and most commonly affect the trunk and shoulders. Tinea versicolor occurs most frequently in teens and young adults. Sun exposure may make tinea versicolor more apparent.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Dermatomycosis furfuracea/Pityriasis versicolor/tinea versicolor, is a type of skin infection caused by yeast known as Pityrosporum orbiculare.

Ø  Typically, a rash appears on the neck, upper arms and chest. At first, the rash consists of small patches which are a different color from the rest of the skin. The patches may become itchy and scaly, and may grow, merge, or spread to the thighs and abdomen.

Ø  A number of antifungal medications are available to treat the condition, and other names it is known by include dermatomycosis furfuracea and tinea flava.

Ø  Pityrosporum orbiculare is found on the skin of most people, where it does not usually cause problems.

Ø  An overgrowth of the yeast leads to Pityriasis versicolor, and this more frequently occurs in association with increased sweating and sebum production. For this reason, Pityriasis versicolor is more common in warmer climates and in the summer months.

Ø  Those who are most frequently affected by the condition include teenagers and people whose immune systems are affected by drugs or illnesses such as AIDS.

Ø  Although it is a common disease, it is not possible to catch Pityriasis versicolor from another person.

 

ERYSIPELAS

Definition

Erysipelas is a superficial infection of the skin, which typically involves the lymphatic system. Erysipelas is also known as holy fire/St. Anthony's fire, an accurate description of the intensity of this rash. Erysipelas was a feared disease in pre-antibiotic days. It occurs within the fat tissues and skin and particularly affects elderly people. But it is also develops in young people and anyone with an autoimmune disorder or weakened immune system. This is an unpleasant and distressing form of cellulitis.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Erysipelas is most often caused by specific Streptococcus bacteria known as Group-A Streptococcus. In a few cases, it can be caused by other types of Streptococcus or Staphylococcus bacteria.

Ø  Some cases of erysipelas have an inciting wound such as trauma, an abrasion, or some other break in the skin that precedes the fiery infection. However, in most cases, no break in the skin can be found.

Ø  Erysipelas was previously found mainly on the face. However, now it is seen most commonly on the lower extremities. Erysipelas tends to occur in areas where the lymphatic system is obstructed.

Ø  A cluster of symptoms typically precede the appearance of the rash by 4 to 48 hours.

Ø  These symptoms include fever, chills, fatigue, anorexia, and vomiting. The rash then quickly appears as a bright red, hot, swollen, shiny patch that has clearly defined borders. The consistency of the rash is similar to an orange peel.

Ø  This disease is most common among the elderly, infants, and children. People with immune deficiencydiabetesalcoholismskin ulcerationfungal infections and impaired lymphatic drainage, after pelvic surgery, bypass grafting are also at increased risk.

ERYTHEMATOSUS

Definition

Erythematosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs when body's immune system attacks tissues and organs. Inflammation caused by erythematosus can affect many different body systems including joints, skin, kidneys, blood cells, brain, heart and lungs. Erythematosus can be difficult to diagnose because its signs and symptoms often mimic those of other ailments. The most distinctive sign of erythematosus is a facial rash that resembles the wings of a butterfly unfolding across both cheeks occurs in many but not all cases of erythematosus Some people are born with a tendency toward developing erythematosus, which may be triggered by infections, certain drugs or even sunlight. While there's no cure for erythematosus, treatments can help control symptoms.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Erythematosus occurs when immune system attacks healthy tissue of body. It's likely that erythematosus results from a combination of your genetics and your environment.

Ø  It appears that people with an inherited predisposition for erythematosus may develop the disease when they come into contact with something in the environment that can trigger erythematosus.

Ø  The cause for erythematosus in most cases, however, is unknown. Some potential triggers include:

Ø  Exposure to the sun may bring on erythematosus skin lesions or trigger an internal response in susceptible people.

Ø  Erythematosus can be triggered by certain types of anti-seizure medications, blood pressure medications and antibiotics.

Ø  People who have drug-induced erythematosus usually see their symptoms go away when they stop taking the medication.

 

ECZEMA

Definition

This is a very common skin condition in which the sufferer develops dry, red, flaky skin which is also itchy and prone to blisters. These blisters contain fluid which weep and then form crusty deposits which is a sign of infection. The term eczema refers to a number of different skin conditions in which the skin is red and irritated and occasionally results in small, fluid-filled bumps that become moist and ooze. The most common cause of eczema is atopic dermatitis, sometimes called infantile eczema although it occurs in infants and older children.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Eczema may affect any area of your skin, but it typically appears on your arms and behind your knees. It tends to flare periodically and then subside. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis (eczema) is unknown, but it's likely due to a combination of dry, irritable skin with a malfunction in the body's immune system.

Ø  Stress and other emotional disorders can worsen atopic dermatitis, but they don't cause it. Most experts believe atopic dermatitis has a genetic basis. It has been thought to be connected to asthma and hay fever, but that theory is being questioned.

Ø  Not all people with atopic dermatitis have asthma or hay fever, and not all people with asthma or hay fever develop atopic dermatitis, but these diseases do seem to be present together in families of those affected

Ø  Factors that may increase your risk of dermatitis (eczema) include:

Neurodermatitis:  Prolonged itching and scratching may increase the intensity of the itch, possibly leading to neurodermatitis (lichen simplex chronicus). Neurodermatitis is a condition in which an area of skin that's frequently scratched becomes thick and leathery. The patches can be raw, red or darker than the rest of your skin. Persistent scratching can also lead to permanent scars or changes in skin color.

Skin infections:  Sometimes, scratching can break the skin and cause open sores and fissures that can become infected, a process called impetiginization. A milder form of infection is impetigo, usually due to staphylococcal infection. Having atopic dermatitis predisposes you to this infection.

Eye complications: Severe atopic dermatitis can also cause eye complications, which may lead to permanent eye damage. When these complications occur, itching in and around the eyelids becomes severe. Signs and symptoms of eye complications also include eye watering and inflammation of the eyelid and the lining of the eyelid (conjunctivitis).

Folliculitus:

Definition

This is an inflammation of the hair follicles which results in an itchy, painful skin rash on several parts of the body. These include the scalp, face and legs. A hair follicle is a bulb shaped sac within the skin which causes hair to grow. This hair is nourished by the sebaceous glands. The sebaceous glands release an oily fluid called sebum which lubricates the skin, nails and hair. But the sebaceous gland can become inflamed, leading to a condition called folliculitis. Folliculitis affects both men and women of any age.

The infection usually appears as small, white-headed pimples around one or more hair follicles — the tiny pockets from which each hair grows. Most cases of folliculitis are superficial, and they may itch, but on occasion they are painful too

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Folliculitis is caused by an infection of the hair follicles by bacteria, viruses or fungi. The most common cause of folliculitis is Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

Ø  Folliculitis starts when hair follicles are damaged by rubbing from clothing, blockage of the follicle, or shaving, inflammatory skin conditions, including dermatitis and acne, coverings on your skin, such as plastic dressings or adhesive.

Ø  Most of the time, the damaged follicles become infected with Staphylococcus bacteria.

Ø  Anyone can develop folliculitis, but certain factors make you more susceptible to the condition. These include:

ü  Medical conditions that reduce your resistance to infection, such as diabetes, chronic leukemia, organ transplantation and HIV/AIDS.

ü  A pre-existing skin condition, such as acne or dermatitis.

ü  Trauma to your skin from injury or surgery.

ü  Long-term antibiotic therapy for acne.

ü  Topical corticosteroid therapy.

ü  Obesity — folliculitis is more common in people who are overweight.

ü  Long-term exposure to clothing items that can trap heat, such as wearing high boots or waders.

ü  Exposure to hot water, such as a hot tub or a heated swimming pool.

 

HEAD FUNGUS

Definition

Head fungus/hair ringworm (Tinea capitis) is a fungal infection of the scalp and hair shafts. The signs and symptoms of ringworm of the scalp may vary, but it usually appears as itchy, scaly, bald patches on the head. Head fungus is a highly contagious infection, is most common in toddlers and school-age children.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Ringworm of the scalp is caused by one of several varieties of mold-like fungi called dermatophytes. The fungi attack the outer layer of skin on the scalp and the hair shaft.

Ø  Ringworm isn't caused by a worm. The common name for the disorder refers to the ring-like or circular appearance of the infection on the skin.

Ø  Risk factors of ringworm of the scalp include:

Exposure to other children: Though adults can get ringworm of the scalp, it occurs most often in toddlers and school-age children. Outbreaks of ringworm are common in schools and child care centers where the infection easily spreads through close physical contact or by touching common items, such as door handles.

Exposure to pets:  children with pets are at increased risk of ringworm. A pet, such as a cat or dog, can have the infection without showing any signs. Children can get the infection by touching or petting the animal.

Ø  Others factor that increase the risk of ringworm of the scalp includes:

ü  Poor hygiene

ü  Overcrowded living condition

IMPITIGO

Definition

Impetigo is a highly contagious skin condition caused by bacteria which results in an itchy skin condition that is highly infectious. This is not a serious condition but it is contagious and care must be taken to avoid spreading it to other people particularly babies. Impetigo usually clears up by itself but cases which don’t are treated with antibiotics. This condition affects children more than adults: this is due to their close proximity with others in nurseries and schools which enables infections such as this to spread. But adults can also contract this condition if they live in a close knit environment

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Most impetigo outbreaks are caused by two types of bacteria cause impetigo Staphylococcus aureus, which is most common, and Streptococcus pyogenes.

Ø  Both types of bacteria can live harmlessly on your skin until they enter through a cut or other wound and cause an infection.Although

Ø  Anyone can develop impetigo; children ages 2 to 6 years and infants are most often infected.

Ø  Children are especially susceptible to infections. They are infected through a cut, scrape or insect bite, but they can also develop impetigo without having any notable damage to the skin. In adults, impetigo is usually the result of injury to the skin, often by another dermatological condition such as dermatitis.

JOCK’S ITCK

Definition

Jock itch (tinea cruris) is a fungal infection that affects the skin of your genitals, inner thighs and buttocks. Jock itch causes an itchy, red, often ring-shaped rash in these warm, moist areas of your body.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Jock itch is caused by fungi called dermatophytes. These microscopic organisms are normal inhabitants of your skin, and their growth stays in check as long as your skin is clean and dry.

Ø  Some areas of the body where skin is more likely to be moist and warm, such as the groin, the fungi grow and thrive, resulting in a fungal infection.

Ø  Jock itch can spread from person to person by shared use of contaminated towels or clothing or through direct contact during sexual intercourse with someone who has the infection.

Ø  The organisms that cause jock itch thrive in damp, close environments. Warm, humid settings that promote heavy sweating, thus washing away fungus-killing oils, making the skin more permeable and more prone to infection

 

LEISHMANIASIS

Definition

leishmaniasis cause skin sore it is also known as Aleppo boil, Baghdad boil, Bay sore, Chiclero ulcer, Delhi boil, Kandahar sore, Lahore sore, Leishmaniasis tropica, Oriental sore is the most common form of leishmaniasis. People effected from leishmaniasis belong to tropical and sub tropical areas.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease spread by the bite of infected sand flies.  It is caused by infection with Leishmania parasites, which are spread by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies.

Ø  Sand flies are so small (approximately 2–3 mm, less than one-eighth of an inch) that they can pass through the holes in ordinary bed nets.

Ø  The risk is highest from dusk to dawn because sand flies typically feed (bite) at night and during twilight hours.

Ø  Although sand flies are less active during the hottest time of the day, they may bite if they are disturbed (for example, if hikers brush up against tree trunks or other sites where sand flies are resting).

Ø  Vector activity can easily be overlooked, sand flies do not make noise, they are small (approximately one-third the size of mosquitoes), and their bites might not be noticed.

 

 

LEPROSY

Definition

Leprosy is a disease that has been known since biblical times. It causes skin sores, nerve damage, and muscle weakness that gets worse over time. Leprosy has two common forms: tuberculoid and lepromatous. Both forms produce sores on the skin. However, the lepromatous form is most severe. It causes large lumps and bumps.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Leprosy is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae.

Ø  It is not very contagious and it has a long incubation period (time before symptoms appear), which makes it hard to know where or when someone caught the disease.

Ø  Children are more likely than adults to get the disease.

Ø  Most cases of leprosy are from long-term contact with someone who has the disease.

Ø  Leprosy might be passed from person to person by breathing in droplets that get into the air when infected people cough or sneeze.

Ø  Most people who come in contact with the Mycobacterium leprae do not develop leprosy.

Ø  However, people whose immune systems are weakened from chronic disease (such as diabetes, HIV, AIDS or heart disease) may be more likely to develop leprosy because their immune systems are not strong enough to fight the bacteria.

 

 

MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUN

Definition

Molluscum contagiosum is a relatively common viral infection of the skin that results in round, firm, painless bumps ranging in size from a pinhead to a pencil eraser. If the bumps are scratched or injured, the infection can spread to surrounding skin.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Molluscum contagiosum is a skin infection caused by a poxvirus.

Ø  This virus is spread from person to person either by touching the affected skin area or by sexual contact when the genital area is affected.

Ø  The virus can also temporarily survive on surfaces like towels, cloths, toys, door handles and spread to individuals that come into contact with these surfaces.

Ø  Infection can be spread by touching or scratching other areas of body.

Ø  More widespread Molluscum contagiosum infections may occur in people with weakened immune systems and in children who have atopic dermatitis.

NECROTIZING FASCITITIS

Definition

Necrotizing fascititis or macrotizing soft tissue infection is a rare but very severe type of bacterial infection. It can destroy the muscles, skin, and underlying tissue. The word "necrotizing" refers to something that causes body tissue to die.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Many different types of bacteria can cause this infection. A very severe and usually deadly form of necrotizing soft tissue infection is due to Streptococcus pyogenes, which is sometimes called "flesh-eating bacteria."

Ø  Necrotizing soft tissue infection develops when the bacteria enters the body, usually through a minor cut or scrape.

Ø  The bacterium begins to grow and release harmful substances (toxins) that kill tissue and affect blood flow to the area. As the tissue dies, the bacterium enters the blood and rapidly spreads throughout the body.

Ø  Necrotizing fasciitis can affect any area of the body, but in adults it most commonly occurs on the extremities. Conversely, in very young children the most commonly affected area is the trunk. 

Ø  There is a higher mortality rate when the head, neck, chest, or abdomen is involved. These areas are more difficult to treat, and critical structures reside within them.

Ø  Typically, it occurs as a result of trauma, extension of a urinary tract infection, or an extension of an infection in the perianal or retroperitoneal areas.

 

OTITS EXTERNA

Definition

Otitis externa is also called as swimmer's ear or repeated ear infections. It is an infection of the lining the ear canal, which carries sound from outside the ear to the middle ear. It is one of the causes of hearing impairment.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Water that does not drain from the ear canal washes away the wax that protects the ear canal, leading to conditions for bacterial or fungal infections to occur.

Ø  Swimmers ear is usually found in people who swim frequently, particularly in water that is not clean.

Ø  People who live in very damp, tropical places are especially at risk for this ear condition.

Ø  Otitis externa can also happen due to injury of the ear canal lining, such as scratching it with a fingernail, hair clip, or paper clip This condition is also seen in young children who spend a good deal of time swimming, especially during the hot summer months.

Ø  There are commercially available earplugs that will prevent water from getting into the ears and causing infection. Remember, repeated ear infections can cause hearing impairment that may not be easily recognizable for months.

PSORIASIS

Definition

Psoriasis is a well known skin condition which presents as a red, itchy, crusty rash with silver colored scales which flakes easily especially when scratched. It affects people of any age although it is more common in people aged between 11 and their mid forties. Psoriasis varies in severity from one person to another. Some people have a mild form of this disease but others are unfortunate enough to suffer from a severe form which impacts on their day to day living.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Psoriasis is a fault of immune system. Immune system protects against infection and does this by releasing T-cells to deal with the threat of a germ, virus or bacteria.

Ø  But in this case, the T-cells turn on healthy skin cells instead. This triggers the release of more T-cells and healthy skin cells.

Ø  This process gradually speeds up to the point where the entire skin cell life cycle occurs within 5 days rather than the normal 28 days.

Ø  Genetics is another factor. Psoriasis tends to run in families so if a close family member has this condition then you will develop it as well.

Ø  People with psoriasis are at risk for the following conditions:

Psoriatic Arthritis: Up to 30% of people with psoriasis go on to develop psoriatic arthritis, which causes pain, stiffness and swelling in and around the joints.

Depression: As many as 25% of people with psoriasis may suffer from depression.

Cardiovascular Disease: People with severe psoriasis may be at greater risk for heart disease.

PEMPHIGOID

Definition

Pemphigoid is an autoimmune disorder in which your antibodies attack healthy cells in your skin and mouth, causing blisters and sores which leads to deep blisters that do not break easily. Pemphigoid does not spread from person to person. It does not appear to be inherited. But some people's genes put them more at risk for Pemphigoid.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  The cause of pemphigoid is not well understood. The blisters occur because of a malfunction in the immune system.

Ø  Pemphigoid most commonly occurs in people older than age 60, and the risk increases with age.

PEMPHIGUS

Definition

Pemphigus is a group of rare skin disorders that cause blisters of your skin or mucous membranes, such as in your mouth or on your genitals.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Pemphigus is an autoimmune disorder, and in most cases, it's unknown what triggers the disease.

Ø  Normally, your immune system attacks foreign invaders, such as harmful viruses and bacteria. But in pemphigus, your immune system mistakenly produces antibodies that attack healthy cells in your skin and mucous membranes.

Ø  Sometimes, pemphigus develops as a side effect of certain medications, such as certain blood pressure drugs or chelating agents. This type of pemphigus usually disappears when the medicine is stopped.

Ø  Pemphigus isn't contagious, and there's no way to predict who'll get it. However, risk increases in middle- or old age.

 

 

 

 

PSEUDOMONAS DERMITITIS

Definition

Pseudomonas dermatitis or Hot Tub Rash is an infection of the skin. The skin may become itchy and progress to a bumpy red rash that may become tender. There may also be pus-filled blisters that are usually found surrounding hair follicles. Because wet cloths or swimsuit can keep contaminated water in longer contact with the skin, the rash may be worse under a person’s wet cloths.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Pseudomonas dermatitis or Hot Tub Rash infections are often caused by the germ Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Ø  This germ is common in the environment (water, soil).

Ø  Pseudomonas dermatitis is spread by direct skin contact with contaminated water.

Ø  Pseudomonas dermatitis or Hot tub rash can occur in people of any age, of any race, and of either sex.

Ø  Individuals with Pseudomonas dermatitis avoid bathing in contaminated pool or sponge.

RINGWORM

Definition

Ringworm of the body is one of several forms of ringworm, a fungal infection that develops on the top layer of your skin. It's characterized by an itchy, red circular rash with healthy-looking skin in the middle. Ringworm gets its name from the characteristic ring that can appear, but it has nothing to do with an actual worm under skin. Also called tinea corporis, ringworm of the body is closely related to other fungal infections with similar names, including athlete's foot (tinea pedis), jock itch (tinea cruris) and ringworm of the scalp (tinea capitis).

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Ringworm is a fungal infection, caused by microorganisms that become parasites on the body.

Ø  These mold-like fungi called dermatophytes live on the cells in the outer layer of the skin.

Ø  A person is at higher risk of ringworm of the body if he/she:

ü  Live in damp, humid or crowded conditions

ü  Have close contact with an infected person or animal

ü  Share clothing, bedding or towels with someone who has a fungal infection

ü  Sweat excessively

ü  Participate in contact sports, such as wrestling, football or rugby

ü  Wear tight or restricted clothing

ü  Have a weakened immune system

 

SCALP FUNGUS

Definition

Ringworm of the scalp or fungal scalp (tinea capitis) is a fungal infection of the scalp and hair shafts. It usually appears as itchy, scaly, bald patches on the head. Serious cases cause pus filled sores to develop, accompanied by a fever and swollen glands.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Ringworm of the scalp is caused by one of several varieties of mold-like fungi called dermatophytes.

Ø  The fungi attack the outer layer of skin on the scalp and the hair shaft.

Ø  Infection of scalp fungus can be spread by exposure of children with other children.

Ø  Outbreaks of ringworm are common in schools and child care centers where the infection easily spreads through close physical contact or by touching common items, such as door handles etc.

 

SCALEDED SKIN SYNDROME

Definition

Scalded skin syndrome is a skin infection. This is characterized by a red blistering skin that looks like a burn or scald damaged and sheds.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Scalded skin syndrome is caused by infection with certain strains of Staphylococcus bacteria.

Ø  The bacteria produce a exotoxins (epidermolytic toxins A and B) that causes the skin damage.

Ø  The damage creates blisters as if the skin were scalded.

Ø  Scalded skin syndrome is found most commonly in infants and children under the age of 5-8.

SCABIES

Definition

Scabies is an infectious skin condition that produce itchy skin rash. It is contagious skin infection can easily spread to other people, usually via direct contact and it is common way of contracting this disease. It is also spread by sharing bedding, towels and clothing with an infected person.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  In humans scabies is caused by eight-legged mite that is microscopic.

Ø  The female mite burrows just beneath the skin and produces a tunnel in which it deposits eggs.

Ø  The eggs hatch in three to four days, and the mite larvae work their way to the surface of the skin, where they mature and can spread to other areas of the skin.

Ø  The itching of scabies results from body's allergic reaction to the mites, their eggs and their waste.

SHINGLES

Definition

Shingles is viral infections that produce a painful rash. Although shingles can occur anywhere on your body, it most often appears as a single stripe of blisters that wraps around either the left or the right side of the trunk.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Shingles is caused by the varicella-zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox Varicella zoster is part of a group of viruses called herpes viruses, which includes the viruses that cause cold sores and genital herpes.

Ø  Because of this, shingles is also known as herpes zoster. But the virus that causes chickenpox and shingles is not the same virus responsible for cold sores or genital herpes.

Ø  Factors that may increase your risk of developing shingles include:

 

ü  Shingles is most common in people older than 50. The risk increases with age.

ü  Diseases that weaken immune system, such as HIV/AIDS and cancer, can increase risk of shingles.

ü  Undergoing radiation or chemotherapy can lower resistance to diseases and may trigger shingles.

ü  Drugs designed to prevent rejection of transplanted organs can increase risk of shingles.

 

TINEA VERSICOLOR

Definition

Tinea versicolor also called pityriasis versicolor. It is a common fungal infection of the skin. The fungus interferes with the normal pigmentation of the skin, resulting in small, discolored patches. These patches may be lighter or darker in color than the surrounding skin and most commonly affect the trunk and shoulders. Tinea versicolor occurs most frequently in teens and young adults. Sun exposure may make tinea versicolor more apparent.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  The fungus that causes tinea versicolor can be found on healthy skin.

Ø  It only starts causing problems when the fungus overgrows.

Ø  A number of factors may improve this growth, hot, humid weather, excessive sweating, oily skin, hormonal changes, weaken immune system.

 

TUBERCULOSIS OF SKIN

Definition

Tuberculosis of skin/cutaneous tuberculosis also called as lupus vulgaris. It occurs rarely, despite a high and increasing prevalence of tuberculosis. Diagnosis of these lesions can be difficult, as they resemble many other dermatological conditions. In skin tuberculosis painful skin lesions with nodule appears, most often on the face around nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks, ears and neck. The lesions may develop into skin ulcers.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Cutaneous tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the same bacteria that cause pulmonary TB.

Ø  Several different types of cutaneous TB exist. Mycobacteriums enter through broken skin.

Ø  The immune response of the patient and the virulence of the mycobacterium determine the type and severity of cutaneous TB.

Ø  The risk of cutaneous tuberculosis infection increases in contact with infectious person.

Ø  It is associated with age, sex, intensity of exposure to the infected person, and severity of disease in the person.

Ø  But it is possible that genetic factors contribute to the susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

 

VITILIGO

Definition

Vitiligo is a chronic skin condition which results in the development of large pale patches on the skin. These patches are white or pale coloured due to the absence of melanin. Melanin is a pigment which determines the skin colour and also helps to protect it against the sun.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Vitiligo occurs when melanin-forming cells (melanocytes) fail to produce melanin.

Ø  It is a dark pigment in the epidermis that gives skin its normal color, the involved patch of skin then becomes white.

Ø  It may be due to an immune system disorder.

Ø   Heredity may be a factor because there's an increased incidence of vitiligo in some families such as sunburn or emotional distress that worsen the condition.

WART

Definition

 Warts are small, grainy skin growths that occur most often on fingers or hands. These are rough to touch and often appear as tiny black dots. Warts are small, clotted blood vessels. Their appearance depends upon what area of the body they develop on.

Causative Agent and risk factor:

Ø  Warts are caused by a virus and are transmitted by touch.

Ø  Children and young adults are more likely to develop warts.

Ø  People who have weakened immune systems are more susceptible to warts.

Ø  Warts usually disappear on their own, but many people choose to remove them because they find them bothersome or embarrassing.

 

 

Candida Albicans or Candidiasis:      

Definition:

Candidiasis is a primary or secondary mycotic infection caused by members of the genus Candida. The clinical manifestations may be acute, subacute or chronic to episodic. Candidiasis or thrush is a fungal infection (mycosis) of any species from the genus Candida (one genus of yeasts). Candida albicans is the most common agent of Candidiasis in humans.[1][2] Also commonly referred to as a yeast infection, candidiasis is also technically known as candidosis, moniliasis, and oidiomycosis.

 

Causative Agent & Risk Factors:

 

1-Involvement may be localized to the mouth, throat, skin, scalp, vagina, fingers, nails, bronchi, lungs, or the gastrointestinal tract, or become systemic as in septicemia, endocarditis and meningitis.

2-In healthy individuals, Candida infections are usually due to impaired epithelial barrier functions and occur in all age groups, but are most common in the newborn and the elderly.

3- They usually remain superficial and respond readily to treatment. Systemic candidiasis is usually seen in patients with cell-mediated immune deficiency, and those receiving aggressive cancer treatment, immunosuppression, or transplantation therapy.

4-Esophageal candidiasis is the most common esophageal infection in persons with AIDS.

 

 

 

 

 

Pyoderma:

 Definition:                                                                 

Pyoderma means any skin disease that is . These include superficial bacterial infections such as impetigo, impetigo contagiosa, ecthyma, folliculitis, Bockhart's impetigo, furuncle, carbuncle, tropical ulcer, etc.[1][2] Autoimmune conditions include pyoderma gangrenosum.[citation needed] Pyoderma affects more than 111 million children worldwide, making it one of the three most common skin disorders in children along with scabies and tinea.

Causative Agent & Risk Factors:

1-Most common organism usually isolated in pyoderma is Staphyloccus aureus, which may be either methicilllin-sensitive (MSSA) or methicilllin-resistant (MRSA). MRSA is an important health care associated pathogen.

2-Various factors like poverty, malnutrition, overcrowding, and poor hygiene have been stated to be responsible for its higher incidence in the lower socio-economic class.

3-It tends to be associated with inflammatory conditions, including ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and hepatitis.

4-Infections like  bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal, viral, parasitic can leads to pyoderma.

Measles:

Definition:

Measles, also known as morbilli, English measles, or rubeola (and not to be confused with rubella or roseola) is an infection of the respiratory system caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. Measles is a highly contagious viral disease, which affects mostly children.

Causative Agent & Risk Factors:

These factors increase your chance of developing measles:

·         Unvaccinated or inadequately vaccinated

·         Living in crowded and/or unsanitary conditions

·         Traveling to less developed countries where measles is common

·         Season: winter and spring

·         Immunosuppressed state (eg, untreated HIV and AIDS ), even if vaccinated.

 

Prickly Heat:                                                   

Definition:

It is a skin disease marked by small and itchy rashes. Miliaria is a common ailment in hot and humid conditions, such as in the tropics and during the summer season. Heat rash occurs when the skin's sweat glands are blocked and the sweat produced cannot get to the surface of the skin to evaporate. This causes inflammation that results in a rash. Although it affects people of all ages, it is especially common in children and infants due to their underdeveloped sweat glands. Causative Agent & Risk Factors:

The causative agent of prickly heat is Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis.Following are the risk factors of heat rashes:

1-Heat rashes are more common in places with hot, humid, climates because people sweat more.

2-Avoid exercising in hot, humid weather

3-Wear loose clothing made of breathable fabrics like cotton

4-Use air conditioning

5-Keep the skin clean with frequent baths or showers to prevent sweat glands from becoming clogged

6-Reduce the amount of overlapping skin-on-skin

Brown Spots on Face (Liver Spot):

Definition:

Age spots, also called liver spots and solar lentigines — are flat gray, brown or black spots. They vary in size and usually appear on the face, hands, shoulders and arms — areas most exposed to the sun. Brown spots typically develop in people with a fair complexion.

Causative Agent & Risk Factors:

Age spots are caused primarily by years of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun. The use of commercial tanning lamps and tanning beds can also contribute to the development of age spots. Although anyone can develop age spots, you may be more likely to develop the condition if you:

·         Have light-colored or fair skin

·         Have a history of frequent or intense sun exposure or sunburn.

Hair Follicles:

Definition:

Folliculitis occurs when hair follicles become infected, often with Staphylococcus aureus or other bacteria. Certain variations of folliculitis are also known as hot tub folliculitis and barber's itch. Severe infections can cause permanent hair loss and scarring, and even mild folliculitis can be uncomfortable and embarrassing.

The infection usually appears as small, white-headed pimples around one or more hair follicles — the tiny pockets from which each hair grows.

Causative Agent & Risk Factors:

 

Folliculitis is caused by an infection of the hair follicles by bacteria, viruses or fungi. The most common cause of folliculitis is Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The most common causes of follicle damage include:

·         Friction from shaving or tight clothing

·         Excessive perspiration

·         Inflammatory skin conditions, including dermatitis and acne

·         Injuries to your skin, such as abrasions or surgical wounds

·         Coverings on your skin, such as plastic dressings or adhesive tape

Anyone can develop folliculitis, but certain factors make you more susceptible to the condition. These include:

·         Medical conditions that reduce your resistance to infection, such as diabetes, chronic leukemia, organ transplantation and HIV/AIDS

·         A pre-existing skin condition, such as acne or dermatitis

·         Trauma to your skin from injury or surgery

·         Long-term antibiotic therapy for acne

·         Topical corticosteroid therapy

·         Obesity — folliculitis is more common in people who are overweight

·         Long-term exposure to clothing items that can trap heat, such as wearing high boots or waders

·         Exposure to hot water, such as a hot tub or a heated swimming pool.

Abscess:

Definition:

An abscess is a tender, soft, swelling generally surrounded by an area of skin coloured from pink to deep red. The middle of an abscess is full of pus and debris. An abscess (Latinabscessus) is a collection of pus (neutrophils) that has accumulated within a tissue because of an inflammatory process in response to either an infectious process.

Painful and warm to touch, abscesses can appear anywhere on your body. The most common sites are in your armpits (axillae), areas around your anus and vagina (Bartholin's abscess), the base of your spine (pilonidal abscess), around atooth (dental abscess), and in your groin. Inflammation around a hair follicle can also lead to the formation of an abscess, which is called a boil (furuncle).

Causative Agent & Risk Factors:

 Staphylococcus aureus bacteria is a common cause of Abscess. Abscesses are caused by obstruction of oil-producing (sebaceous) glands or sweat glands, inflammation of hair follicles, or from minor breaks and puncture

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