• 1 H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry
    International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences
  • 1 Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research
    International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences
  • 1 Prof. Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman Laboratories (TWC)
    International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences
  • 1 LEJ National Science Information Center
    International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences
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    International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences
  • 1 LEJ Nanotechnology Center
    International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences
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    International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences
  • 1 HEJ Library
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Glossaries
Glossaries

Glossary of Typical Terms used in the Book:

S. No.

Sindhi

Urdu

English

1

Haida

Haldi

Turmeric Powder

2

Sindhi Ghee

Desi Ghee

Ghee obtained from the Butter.

3

Goond

Goond

Gum of the Plant

4

Nimorion

Neem k bheej

Seeds of neem

5

Sippyoon

Seep

Shell found near Sea

6

Trooh

Kor Tumba

Citrullus colocynthis

7

Sireehan jo Tail

Sarsoon ka tail

Mustard Oil

8

Longa

Long

Clove

9

Kishmish

Kishmish

Currants

10

Thoma

Lehsan

Garlic

11

Adrak

Adrak

Ginger

12

Badam

Badam

Almond

13

Pan jo Pato

Paan ka Patta

Betal Leaf

14

Sawa Dhana

Hara Dhaniya

Cilantro

15

Maakhi

Shehid

Honey

16

Misree

Misri

Refined Sugars

17

Gurhu

Gurh

Jaggery /Unrefined Sugar

18

Khajji

Khajoor

Dates

19

Soonfa

Soonf

Fennel seeds

20

Anjeer

Anjeer

Fig

21

Kara Mirch

Kali Mirchi

Black Pepper

22

Jeero

Zera

Cumin

23

Aamla

Aamla

Gooseberry

24

Lemoon

Nibu

Lemon

25
Makai Makai Maize
26

Bhajehri

Bajra

Millet

27

Kalonji

Kalomji

Nigella seeds

28 

Nim Jo Bhoor

Neem kay Phool

Neem flower

29

Wada Phota

Bari ilaichi

Large cardamom

30

Jhangli Basar

Jangli Piyaaz

Wild Onion

Glossary of Scientific Terms:

  1. Acaulescent: The leaves and inflorescence rise from the ground, appearing to have no stem.
  2. Acme:The period when the plant or population is at its maximum vigor.
  3. Annual: Plants that live reproduce and die in one growing season.
  4. Acephalous: Without a head, used for flower styles without a well-developed stigma.
  5. Apetalous:A flower without petals.
  6. Achene: Dry indehiscent fruit, they have one seed and form from a single carpel, the seed is distinct from the fruit wall.
  7. Aerial: In the air.
  8. Analgesic: A drug characterized by its ability to relieve pain.
  9. Alkaloids: Are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds which mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
  10. Antimicrobial: A substance that is antimicrobial possesses the property of being lethal to bacteria and other unicellular organisms.
  11. Antioxidant:An agent that inhibits oxidation. May reduce risks of contracting certain diseases.
  12. Arthritis: Inflammation of the joints due to infectious, metabolic, or constitutional disorder.
  13. Asthma: Disease of the respiratory tract characterized by difficult.
  14. Antibacterial: A substance with the property of killing bacteria.
  15. Asparagales:Asparagales is the name of an order of plants, used in modern classification systems.
  16. Antifungal: Inhibiting the growth of fungi.
  17. Anti parasitic: Destroying or inhibiting the growth and reproduction of parasites.
  18. Bark: The outer layers of woody plants; corkphloem, and vascular cambium.
  19. Bud:An immature stem tip, typically an embryonic shoot, ether producing a stem, leaves or flowers.
  20. Bulb: An underground stem normally with a short basal surface and with thick fleshy leaves.
  21. Biennial: Plants that need two growing seasons to complete their life cycle, normally vegetative growth the first year and flowering the second year.
  1. Bronchial asthma:The chronic inflammatory disease of respiratory tracts characterized by reversible bronchial obstruction and a hyperreactivity of bronchuses.
  2. Bioassays:Commonly used shorthand for biological assay or biologicalstandardization is a type of scientific experiment. Bioassays are typically conducted to measure the effects of a substance on a living organism and are essential in the development of new drugs and in monitoring environmental pollutants.
  3. Caulescent: With a distinctive stem.
  4. Climbing: Typically long stems, that clings to other objects.
  5. Cladophyll: A flattened stem that is leaf-like and green, used for photosynthesis, normally plants have no or greatly reduced leaves.
  1. Carpel: The female organs of a flower. They have three parts: 1) an ovary, holding one or more egg cells. 2) style and 3) stigma which is at the tip of the style and receives the pollen.
  2. Cholera: A bacterial disease contracted through contaminated drinking water. Symptoms include severe gastrointestinal problems such as acute diarrhea and infection of the small intestine.
  3. Corolla:The petals of a flower surrounding the stamens and pistil.
  4. Cytotoxicity Bioassays: Experiment used to measure the degree to which an agent possesses a specific destructive action on certain cells.
  5. Cholesterol:Itis a waxy steroid of fat that is manufactured in the liver or intestines.
  6. Caryophyllales:Itis an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti, carnations, amaranths, ice plants, and many carnivorous plants.
  7. Constipation:It is defined as having a bowel movement fewer than three times per week. With constipation stools are usually hard, dry, small in size, and difficult to eliminate. Some people who are constipated find it painful to have a bowel movement and often experience straining, bloating, and the sensation of a full bowel.
  8. Carpel: The ovule-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style and ovary.
  9. Cosmetics:Are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body.
  10. Dormant: A state of no growth or reduced growt.
  11. Decumbant: Lying on the ground at the base, but rising at the tip.
  12. Dermatitis: General term for inflammation of the skin.
  13. Decumbant: Lying on the ground at the base, but rising at the tip.
  14. Diabetes:Diabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has highblood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.
  15. Emetic:A substance that induces vomiting.
  16. Frond: The leaf of a fern.
  17. Fabales:Itis an order of flowering plants.
  18. Flavonoids: Also called bioflavonoids from the Latin word flavus meaning yellow also collectively known as Vitamin P and citrin, are a class of plant secondary metabolites or yellow pigments having a structure similar to that of flavones.
  19. Fugacious: lasting for a short time: soon falling away from the parent plant.
  1. Gentianales:Theseare an order of flowering plants, included within the asterid group of dicotyledons.
  1. Hemorrhoids:Are vascular structures in the anal canal which help with stool control. They become pathological or piles[3] when swollen or inflamed.
  2. Herbaceous: Plants with shoot systems that die back to ground each year - both annual and non-woody perennial plants.
  3. Hepatitis: Disease marked by inflammation of the liver.
  4. Jaundice: A disease characterized by obstruction of bile, leading to yellowing of the skin, fluids, and tissues, by weakness, by constipation, and by loss of appetite.
  5. Malaria: Disease caused by protozoans in the genus Plasmodium, carried by mosquitoes. Symptoms include fever and hemolysis of red blood cells.
  6. Monocarpic: Plants that live for a number of years then after flowering and seed set die.
  7. Nectar:Afluid produce by nectaries high in sugar content, used to attract pollinators.
  8. Pneumonia: Disease with many varieties characterized mainly by inflammation of the lungs. Symptoms include chest pain, cough, phlegm, aches, and fever.
  9. Rhizome:An underground stem, typically horizontal, that sends out roots and
  10. Shoots: Are new plant growth, they can include stems, flowering stems with flower buds, and leaves.
  11. Shrubs: A shrub or bush is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and shorter height, usually under 5–6 m (15–20 ft) tall. A large number of plants can be either shrubs or trees, depending on the growing conditions they experience.
  12. Scabies: It is known colloquially as the seven-year itch, is a contagious skin infection that occurs among humans and other animals. It is caused by a tiny and usually not directly visible parasite, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, which burrows under the host's skin, causing intense allergic itching.
  13. Tonsillitis: Inflammation of the tonsils.
  14. Terpenoids:Sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally-occurring organic chemicals similar to terpenes, derived from five-carbon isoprene units assembled and modified in thousands of ways.
  15. Terpenes: They are a large and varied class of organic compounds, produced primarily by a wide variety of plants, particularly conifers,[1] though also by some insects such as termites or swallowtail butterflies, which emit terpenes from their osmeterium.
  16. Ulcer:An open, internal sore.
  17. Woody perennial: True shrubs and trees or some vines with shoot systems that remain alive above the soil surface from one year to the next.
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